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Typical Evidence Examination Scheme









 Adhesive Tape

 Muzzle to Target Distance

 Unknown Materials Identification

 Latent Fingerprint Development

Muzzle to Target Distance

For cases that involve the discharge of a firearm, useful information can be obtained from the examination of the victim's clothing as to how far away from the muzzle of the firearm the individual was when the weapon was fired.  By observing the categories of gunshot residue present and by examining the patterns that are produced by those residues, it is possible to estimate a muzzle to target distance.  The presence or absence of gunshot residues on an item of clothing is also useful in determining if a bullet hole is an entrance bullet hole or an exit bullet hole.  




The discharge of a firearm produces gunshot residues

Unburned smokeless gunpowder


 Partially burned smokeless gunpowder

A chemical test known as the Griess test for the detection of nitrite particles, the population and pattern of nitrite particle reaction can be used to estimate muzzle to target distance